Seed output high; no vegetative spread (Barkley 1986, Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Seedlings transplanted into the field had 63% survival after 7 years (Mottl et al. 2006) suggests that transplanting could be a successful method of re-introduction.
Plants can be crowded out by dense grasses, especially downy wild rye (Mabry, personal observation). Woodland habitat restricted to open woods and edges (Eilers and Roosa 1994).