Transplants in a field study had 90% survival after 7 years, suggesting that transplanting may also be a successful method of re-introduction; self-sows (Mottl et al. 2006),
Mature plants transplanted in the field had 80-92% survival after two years, and continued high survivial in year 3.(Altricher et al. 2020).
Has moderate seed output, but high vegetative spread (Barkely 1986, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).