Of 240 seeds planted in a central Iowa demographic study, 118 (49.2%) germinated and 23 plants survivied to year 5; 24 flowered after an average of 3.3 years (Mabry in prep.).
Experimental seed addition in a small field study increased the occurence of this species recorded in plots by 12-17% after three years (Brudvig et al. 2011).
Seed output high, but no vegetative spread (Barkely 1986, Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Self sows (Mabry, personal observation).