Fruit/Seed Maturation Sign
Capsules become brown and dry, begin to split, seeds black and shiny
Fruit/Seed Collection Dates
Transplants in a field study had 50% survival after 7 years; Columbine self-sows and can spread by seed once established (Mottle et al. 2006).
Seed output moderate; no vegetative spread (Barkely 1986, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).