June to July
Fruit/Seed Maturation Sign
Heads turn soft, break apart easily, achenes turn from greenish to light greenish-brown
Fruit/Seed Collection Dates
Early September through early October; seed head breaks apart over several months
Transplants in a field study had 71% survival after 7 years (Mottl et al. 2006); seed output low and no vegetative spread, indicating it is best introduced as a transplant.
Intolerant of dry storage (Cullina 2000)